After you receive the Slingshot from the Kikwi Elder, you can reach the Deep Woods past Faron Woods.
Find a Goddess Cube
Upon entering the Deep Woods, you'll fight some Red Bokoblins just inside the entrance. There may also be an Amber Relic near where you entered the area.
You can knock the bee hive down with your Slingshot, run over to where it fell to get Hornet Larvae, then use the Bug Net to catch the Deku Hornets. (If you don't have the Bug Net, you can go back to Skyloft and buy it from Beedle's Airshop by using the Slingshot to ring the bell on the shop.) If you aren't quick enough to get the hornet larvae or catch the hornets, you can go back to Faron Woods and come back here to try again, but the Bokoblins will reappear as well.
You can also use the bug net on birds to get Bird Feathers. If you find a blue bird and use the net on it, you get a rare Blue Bird Feather.
You can do a roll attack into the tree that the hornet nest was on, to make the Woodland Rhino Beetles fall off. You can just pick them up after they fall; no need to use the Bug Net.
Follow the stone path. You can cut the fruits up ahead to make Faron Grasshoppers come out. You can catch them with the Bug Net.
Up ahead, you'll reach a rope, but be sure to knock down the beehive before attempting to cross. If the bees follow you, catch them with the bug net. Then cross the rope. If the Bokoblin on the other side starts crossing the rope, follow the on screen instructions to try to jostle the rope. Or you can try to shoot the Bokoblin with the Slingshot, or charge up a Skyward Strike and hit the Bokoblin with it.
As soon as you cross the rope, climb up the ledges on the left and push the log down off of the ledge to give yourself a shortcut. Go back the way you came, and continue along the stone path. There will be an Octorok. Once you defeat it, go down the dirt path past where it was.
Dash up the wall to grab the ledge, and go across by hand. There will be another rope bridge. Try hitting the Bokoblin on the other side with the Slingshot or a Skyward Strike. You can knock the burrs off of the rope with the Slingshot.
Avoid the grass just beyond the rope because it hides some explosive burrs. Then climb up the stairs, defeat the Deku Baba in the grass, then roll attack into the tree to get some deku seeds and knock down the Woodland Rhino Beetle, which you can catch with your net. Save at the Bird Statue here. You can also sit on the small tree stump to recover your hearts, if needed.
Use the nearby rope to swing to the other side. There is a Quadro Baba here. Its mouth shape can change, so be sure to watch it carefully.
Before you go over to Gorko the Goron, go up the nearby ramp to find a chest that contains 20 rupees.
Go back down the ramp, and go to Gorko. If you talk to him, he tells you about Goddess Cubes. Hit the cube with a Skyward Strike. This will unlock a treasure chest somewhere in the sky. The next time you return to the sky, Fi will show you the locations of the unlocked Goddess Cube chests. However, some chests may be indoors, or in areas that you can't reach yet.
Find another Goddess Cube
If you didn't get the red rupee from the chest as mentioned above, go up the ramp near where you fought the Quadro Baba to find it. Then go to the log near Gorko and push it over the ledge for another shortcut. Beyond where the log was, there are some short ledges that you can go down to reach the stone area beyond. There is another Goddess Cube down here, so be sure to hit it with a Skyward Strike to make it go up to the sky. As mentioned earlier, this will unlock a treasure chest somewhere in the sky. These will be marked on your map the next time you return to the sky. However, some chests may be indoors, or in areas that you can't reach yet.
Go toward the Forest Temple and approach the Bird Statue. In the Wii and Wii U versions, Fi will have some advice. Save at the Bird Statue, and proceed when you are ready.
Open the Skyview Temple
There is a sign to the right of the temple near a Deku Baba that tells you how to get into the temple. Go to the door of the temple. You can shoot the bird's eye and tail to get rupees, but this won't unlock the door. Look up at the ceiling and shoot the pink stone with the Slingshot to open the temple door. Go through to enter the Skyview Temple.