After getting the Bow from Dungeon 5, you should get the Magical Sword, then proceed to Dungeon 6.
Get the Magical Sword
You should have 12 heart containers now. If not, read Heart Containers to find out where to get them.
With 12 heart containers, you can now get the Magical Sword. Go south from Dungeon 5, then go east three times, then south twice, then east. Push the left rock to reveal stairs. In the room with the old man, use the middle stairs.
From there, go south, northeast, east twice, northeast, then east until you can't go east anymore. Go north up the stairs, then go east until you find an arrow made of rocks. Push the leftmost rock to reveal stairs. Go down and get the Magical Sword.
Go to Dungeon 6
Go west until you find stairs. Go south down those stairs. Then go west twice, then south, then west twice, then south, then west twice. You will be in the west middle of the graveyard. Use the whistle to reveal the dungeon entrance.
Get the Stepladder
Go north and use the candle to light up the room. You can kill the Wizzrobes here if you want bombs. Otherwise go north. From there, go west, then go west through the locked door. You can kill the Like-Likes and Wizzrobes to get a blue rupee. Otherwise, just go west, be careful of the spike traps by the door. Get the blue rupee, then push the leftmost block and go down the stairs to get the Stepladder.
Get the Map
Go east. If you want to take a shortcut and don't mind using a key, go north through the locked door, then bomb the middle of the east wall and go through, but be careful of the spike traps by the door. Go to the middle of the room (the stepladder lets you do this) and kill all the Like-Likes to make the Map appear.
If you decided not to take a shortcut, go east until you can't go east anymore. Then bomb the middle of the north wall and go through the hole. Go west and go to the middle of the room (the stepladder lets you do this) and kill all the Like-Likes to make the Map appear.
Go east from where you got the map, then go to the north wall. Bomb the middle of the north wall and go through the hole. You'll be in a narrow path. Go north to a room with blue Bubbles.
Optional: Compass and Bombs
If you want the Compass and don't mind having to deal with red Bubbles, push the middle of the west wall until you go through. Then go south, then bomb the middle of the east wall and go through the hole. If the Compass isn't there, kill the Keese with the boomerang to make it appear. Then go west, then north. You can go north again and kill the Wizzrobes to get bombs. Then go south, then push the middle of the east wall to go through.
Get a Key
Back in the room with the blue bubbles, push the leftmost middle block and go down the stairs. Follow the passage until you are upstairs. If you need a key, bomb the middle of the south wall and go through. Kill all the Wizzrobes to make a key appear. Then go north to the room with the spiral.
Go to the Dungeon Boss
From the spiral room, go east through the locked door. Kill the Gleeok to open the door and get a blue rupee. Then go east.
Carefully push the leftmost block. If the red bubbles hit you, you can go west and then down the stairs to reach the room with the blue bubbles (although you can complete the rest of the dungeon without your sword as long as you have rupees). Otherwise, after pushing the aforementioned block, go down the stairs, and go through the passage until you are upstairs.
There is a Manhandla here. You can ignore it and go north, but if you need to go back the way you came, you will have to kill Manhandla, then push the leftmost block.
Either way, go north from Manhandla. Then use the Bow and Arrows to hit Gohma's eye when it opens its eye. When it dies, get the heart container and go north to get the Triforce piece.